Endocrinology encompasses the study of glands and the hormones they secrete. The term is distinguished from exocrine to contrast between hormones secreted internally
from externally. Hormones, derived from the Greek meaning ‘to set in motion’, regulate cellular responses and physiologic processes via feedback mechanisms.

The field of endocrinology is loosely defined by the body’s glands:

  • Pituitary
  • Thyroid
  • Parathyroid
  • Pancreatic islets
  • Adrenal
  • Gonads

These glands interact with other organs via hormones, the nervous system, cytokines, and other mechanisms. In addition to its traditional neuronal and synaptic
functions, the brain produces a variety of peptide hormones, the study of which is neuroendocrinology. The gastrointestinal tract also produces a surprising number of peptide hormones such as cholecystokinin, ghrelin, gastrin, secretin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide, among many others.

Hormones play an important role in maintenance of blood pressure, intravascular volume, and peripheral resistance in the cardiovascular system.

Common endocrine diseases, such as autoimmune thyroid disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus, are caused by dysregulation of immune surveillance and tolerance.
Less common diseases such as polyglandular failure, Addison’s disease, and lymphocytic hypophysitis also have an immunologic basis.

The management of endocrine disorders requires a broad understanding of intermediary metabolism, reproductive physiology, bone metabolism, and growth. Accordingly, the practice of endocrinology is intimately linked to a conceptual framework for understanding hormone secretion, hormone action, and principles of feedback control. The endocrine system is evaluated primarily by measuring hormone concentrations, thereby arming the clinician with valuable diagnostic information. Most disorders of the endocrine system are amenable to effective treatment, once the correct diagnosis is determined. Endocrine deficiency disorders are treated with physiologic hormone replacement; hormone excess conditions, usually due to benign glandular adenomas, are managed by removing tumours surgically or by reducing hormone levels medically.

At the bottom of this profile are brief details of a number of the experts that Expert Experts represents. Call our office to discuss your requirements and to obtain a recommendation that suits your needs and budget.

Expertise in Action

Endocrinology experts may be required to provide opinion in cases involving:

  • Medical malpractice
  • Side effects during treatment such as hormone replacement therapy
  • Misdiagnosis
  • Negligence
  • Wrongful medication
  • Failure to warn of side-effects
  • Failure to refer to a specialist
  • Adverse effects of chemical exposure, toxic substances, food and drink additives, etc.
  • Workers Compensation and other insurance issues
Sample Reports

For some fields of expertise we have some sample sections of de-identified reports. Please contact our office if you are interested in a sample.


The overall cost of expert opinion depends on the services required. Some of the key factors that affect the cost of advice include:

  • The need for a view or inspection of a location
  • The quantity of documentary material to be reviewed
  • Whether there are reports of other experts to be reviewed and commented on in detail
  • Whether there is a need for conferences with the expert either in person or by telephone/Skype
Relevant Articles Cancer Australia - Hormone therapy

Hormones are naturally produced substances in the body that tell some cells and tissues how to behave and grow. Hormone therapy (also called endocrine therapy) aims to stop or slow the growth of certain types of cancer that use hormones to grow. These include breast, prostate and thyroid cancers.

Menopausal hormone therapy doubles risk of breast cancer, Cancer Council NSW says, but experts disagree

Women using hormone replacement therapy to deal with the difficult symptoms of menopause are twice as likely to develop breast cancer than those who have never used it, new research has shown. The study by Cancer Council NSW was conducted with more 2,000 menopausal women. But it has been questioned by one women's health expert, who has said the sample size was too small and biased.

Relevant Cases Medical Board of Australia v Abi Haila (Review and Regulation) [2017] VCAT 1627

A doctor prescribed testosterone outside the guidelines recommended by the Endocrine Society and without consultation of a specialist endocrinologist.

Related Blog Articles

A sample of our experts in Medical - Endocrinology

Below are short profiles of a few experts with expertise in this field. Please contact our office to discuss your specific requirements and to obtain a recommendation that suits your needs and budget. Expert Experts are experts in finding the right expert for your needs and you pay no more to use Expert Experts than if you searched and found the expert yourself.

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