Pendulum testing is the most widely used method of testing the slipperiness of pedestrian surfaces and has been adopted throughout the world. The pendulum, mounted on a base, uses a standardised piece of rubber, which is set up to travel across the flooring sample for a few centimetres. When the arm of the pendulum is calibrated to pass above the floor, the arm will swing up to 180 degrees on the other side and the reading will be zero.

Slippery or low-friction flooring produces low readings (e.g. less than 30), while flooring which show higher resistance to slipping result in higher numbers. Surfaces of about 36 and above are deemed suitably slip-resistant, but this will vary according to gradient and if the surface is prone to rain. The pendulum can be used on a variety of surfaces including roads and tarmacs. Different sliders will represent different types of footwear or even having no footwear at all.

The pendulum is also the instrument used in the Sustainable Slip Resistance test method, which measures the possible impact of years of use on a potential flooring’s slip resistance.

Standards Australia HB 197:1999 as well as Standards Australia HB 198:2014 give detailed recommendations/guidelines of minimum wet Pendulum Test Slip Resistance Values for many different situations: e.g. external ramps, 54; external walkways and pedestrian crossings, 45; shopping centre food courts, 35; and elevator lobbies above external entry level may be 25 or less. There are also barefoot area recommendations based on pendulum tests with a soft rubber slider (TRL rubber also known as Slider 55). The Australian recommendations are presently the world’s most detailed standards for pedestrian wet slip resistance.

At the bottom of this profile are brief details of a number of the experts that Expert Experts represents. Call our office to discuss your requirements and to obtain a recommendation that suits your needs and budget.

Expertise in Action

Experts in pendulum testing can give opinions on how safe surfaces are in the workplace, for both employees and the public entering a retail premises. Experts will be sought in cases of workers compensation claims and public liability insurance claims where falls have taken place, identifying who had the duty of care and responsibility. Common examples include public or hotel showers, the spillage of substances in supermarket aisles, outdoor areas on ships, and footpaths by public swimming pools.

Experts can offer opinions on eliminating the hazard, substituting the flooring with a more slip-resistant surface, isolating the high-risk area, recommending treatments or coatings for flooring, recommending engineering solutions such as improved drainage, and in cases where the surface slipperiness cannot be reduced, recommending warning signs and the use of non-slip footwear.

Sample Reports

For some fields of expertise we have some sample sections of de-identified reports. Please contact our office if you are interested in a sample.


The overall cost of expert opinion depends on the services required. Some of the key factors that affect the cost of advice include:

  • The need for a view or inspection of a location
  • The quantity of documentary material to be reviewed
  • Whether there are reports of other experts to be reviewed and commented on in detail
  • Whether there is a need for conferences with the expert either in person or by telephone/Skype
Relevant Articles Managing the risks of falls at workplaces – Code of Practice v2 (March 2015)

This Code of Practice on how to manage the risk of falls in the workplace is an approved code of practice under section 274 of the Work Health and Safety Act.

Customer wins $155k over puddle slip

A woman who slipped on a puddle of water in an Adelaide bakery has been awarded more than $155,000 damages after she injured her neck and back.

Relevant Cases Garzo v Liverpool / Campbelltown Christian School. [2012] NSWCA 151

A woman slipped and suffered injuries whilst crossing a road within school grounds. The Standards Australia Handbook recommended that the slip resistance for a pedestrian crossing should have a reading of between 45 and 54, whereas it was actually 40

Related Blog Articles

A sample of our experts in Ergonomics – Pendulum testing

Below are short profiles of a few experts with expertise in this field. Please contact our office to discuss your specific requirements and to obtain a recommendation that suits your needs and budget. Expert Experts are experts in finding the right expert for your needs and you pay no more to use Expert Experts than if you searched and found the expert yourself.

  • #ID7335

Ergonomist - Work Health and Safety Specialist expert

ID7335 has over 20 years’ experience and currently works as a Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) consultant advising companies on their systems of work. ID7335 has an extensive background in a number of industries, including healthcare and has frequently advised local health services advising on their safe systems of work including major project review of injuries, OHS advisory and risk management process for clinical aggression and harassment injuries.

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